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李克强:计划在三至五年内煤炭产能压减8亿吨 2017-02-08 10:06:45

摘要:我们计划在三至五年内钢铁、煤炭产能分别压减1 4亿吨和8亿吨,使相关行业恢复更加健康的基本面。

  英文版《彭博商业周刊》(2017年1月30日-2月5日)刊载了中华人民共和国国务院总理李克强的英文署名文章。杂志于2017年1月27日出版。以下为中文译文。
  作者:中华人民共和国国务院总理李克强
  这是一个充满考验的时代。
  国际金融危机爆发近十年后,世界经济仍未能完全摆脱其负面影响,中国也面临不少挑战。但我们选择迎难而上。
  我们坚信,开放的经济符合各方利益,对中国如此,对世界亦然。世界各国是命运共同体,相互间开展贸易与投资合作,远比相互攻讦、高筑壁垒好。出现分歧,本着相互尊重、平等相待的精神商谈解决之道,最符合各方利益。

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   2016年6月28日上午,国务院总理李克强在天津梅江会展中心同出席2016年夏季达沃斯论坛的300多名各国企业家代表举行对话会。(资料图)
  中国坚定支持世界贸易组织和一切旨在推动包容发展的自贸安排。经济全球化在前所未有的规模上推动了财富的创造和分享,但这一进程也存在问题,主要是在分享方面。只要各国齐心协力,确保所有人都能从全球化中受益,这些问题是完全可以解决的。
  在国内,中国政府在处理同市场关系时采取介入更少、更加平衡的方式。为改善中国的营商环境,我们推动简政放权、放管结合、优化服务等改革,着力防范各种风险隐患,并将不断完善营改增改革,确保各行业税负只减不增。
  我们将开放更多行业,并放宽更多行业准入。我们正在对基于负面清单管理模式的外资准入制度进行推广前的试点,未来还将出台更多措施,让所有在华注册的企业都能一视同仁享受政策。在西部欠发达地区或东北老工业基地投资的企业,还可享受更多优惠政策。
  政府将继续投资基础设施建设,增加国内需求。更多资源将投向乡村公路、供排水系统和信息网络建设等以往并不显眼的短板领域。在改善硬件的同时,努力加强民生保障,特别是对弱势群体的保障力度。
  结构性改革正在收到成效。2016年,中国压减落后过剩钢铁产能6500万吨以上、煤炭产能2.9亿吨以上。我们计划在三至五年内钢铁、煤炭产能分别压减1.4亿吨和8亿吨,使相关行业恢复更加健康的基本面。与此同时,政府还联手企业,为转岗人员提供多种形式的再培训。仅2016年,转岗安置人数就达到70万。
  中国经济增长的新动能正在蓬勃兴起。服务业占经济总量的比重已超过制造业,领军地位更加巩固,消费对GDP增长的贡献率在六成以上。新动能不仅创造新价值,也提升了传统产业的效率和竞争力,推动高技术产业和装备制造业增长领跑整个工业。
  大众创业、万众创新向纵深发展。新的商业模式不断涌现,此前许多意想不到的服务正日益成为生活中随处可享的便利。一个典型的例子是建立在移动互联网基础上的共享经济。除了订餐、约车等基本服务,家政、健康咨询等很多新服务也都只需轻点手机就可获得。
  数字最能说明问题。去年中国经济实现了6.7%的健康增长。更重要的是,尽管产业进一步优化整合、工业机器人应用日益广泛,中国就业市场的弹性不降反增。2013年以来,我们每年新增城镇就业1300多万人,失业率当前处于多年来最低水平。
  在一个不确定性层出不穷的世界上,中国是稳定之锚、增长之源,并始终如一传递深化改革、扩大开放和推进自由贸易的积极信息。时局不易,但正因如此,我们更不应忽视这些中国和世界从中受益良多的原则。
  (李克强自2013年3月起担任中华人民共和国国务院总理。)
  以下为英文原文。
  This is a testing time.
  Almost a decade on, the world is still reeling from the fallout of the global financial crisis. China faces its fair share of challenges, but we choose to confront them head on.
  Above all, we remain convinced that economic openness serves everyone better, at home and abroad. The world is a community of shared destiny. It’s far preferable for countries to trade goods and services and bond through investment partnerships than to trade barbs and build barriers. Should differences arise, it behooves us all to discuss them with respect and a keen sense of equality.
  China stands resolute with the World Trade Organization and multilateral free-trade agreements designed to be inclusive. Economic globalization has enabled the creation and sharing of wealth on an unprecedented scale. There are problems, too, more on the sharing side. These can be addressed, but only if countries work together to ensure that a rising tide really does lift all boats.
  At home, the government is opting for a lighter, more balanced touch while engaging the market. To make doing business in China easier, the state is consolidating administrative reviews and focusing more on compliance oversight, risk preparedness, and providing services. We keep improving implementation of the VAT reform to make sure that tax costs drop across the board.
  We are opening new sectors of the economy to investment and widening access to many others. We are piloting a “negative list” model before a nationwide rollout, where investment access is assumed unless specifically restricted. More measures are in the pipeline to ensure all businesses registered in China are treated equally. Companies can enjoy additional incentives if they invest in less-developed western regions or in the northeastern industrial belt.
  While the government is continuing to invest in infrastructure to boost domestic demand, more resources are going to improving rural roads, water supply, sewage systems, and information networks—areas that traditionally haven’t been as visible. In parallel with such hardware improvements, we’re continuing efforts to expand the safety net, not least for the more vulnerable members of society.
  Structural reforms are showing results.
  In 2016, China shed more than 65 million and 290 million tons of inefficient steel and coal-mining capacity, respectively. We plan to raise those numbers to 140 million and 800 million tons within the next three to five years to restore healthier fundamentals to those industries. Meanwhile, the government is working with business communities on various retraining programs. In 2016 alone, 700,000 workers once employed in downsized industries moved on to new jobs.
  At the same time, new growth drivers are emerging strong. Services, which have surpassed manufacturing as a share of the economy, keep consolidating their lead. Consumption now contributes more than 60 percent of the growth in China’s gross domestic product. While creating new value, these drivers are also boosting the efficiency and competitiveness of traditional sectors, with high-tech and equipment manufacturing leading industrial expansion.
  Entrepreneurship and innovation are taking root. Meanwhile, new business models are thriving, transforming many previously unimaginable services into daily conveniences. The mobile-internet-enabled sharing economy is only one obvious case. Besides ordering takeout or hailing cars, housekeeping, health consulting, and many more services are now just a swipe away.
  The numbers bear out the case. The economy grew a healthy 6.7 percent last year. More important, despite industrial consolidation and ever more robots finding their way into factories, the job market is proving resilient. The economy has added more than 13 million jobs every year since 2013. Unemployment stands at a multiyear low.
  In a world with a plethora of uncertainties, China offers an anchor of stability and growth with its consistent message of support for reform, openness, and free trade. The times may be difficult. But that’s all the more reason not to lose sight of these principles, which have stood China—and the world—in good stead.
  Li has been the premier of the People’s Republic of China since March 2013. (来源:彭博Bloomberg)